REACH - Role of microvascular insulin resistance and cardiorespiratory fitness in diabetes

Primary Objective

This study will define the relationship of cardiac, vascular function and skeletal muscle blood flow (individually and together) to cardiovascular exercise capacity in in men and women with and without type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Identification of differences in the effects of exercise training on the integrated cardiovascular system and metabolism in men and women with and without T2DM will reveal specific adaptive responses to exercise. This study will evaluate & compare exercise function in a total of 40 subjects from the Denver area (20 people with T2DM and 20 overweight control subjects).

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Participants will undergo baseline testing of heart and blood vessel function as well as skeletal muscle function and exercise ability. Participants will then do cardiovascular exercise for 15 weeks, and all testing will be repeated.

Main Procedures Involved: Testing includes cardiac and muscular ultrasound using Definity contrast, exercising on a stationary bicycle, tests of insulin sensitivity, muscle biopsy, and MRI.

Duration of Participation: Approximately 7-8 months


30 to 55 years


Age 30-55 BMI 25-40 A1C < 5.7% for controls & <9% for those with diabetes Female participants must be pre-menopausal Non-tobacco users

Participants with diabetes cannot be taking insulin Participants cannot have cardiovascular disease or any physical impairment that would limit exercising on a stationary bicycle

Type of Study

Outcomes Research



Travel Compensation


Principal Investigator
Photograph of Judith Regensteiner,  PhD

Judith Regensteiner, PhD

Study ID

Protocol Number: 20-2723

More information available at NCT04791371

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